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Watching the Detectives in Hull: some thoughts from the audience

Our project on ‘Watching the Transnational Detectives’ is all about examining in particular the ways in which viewers respond to languages and multiculturalism as showcased in a range of six well-loved crime dramas from France, Italy and Germany. We are interested in the impact these series have on audience’s perceptions of nationhood, foreign languages and cultures, and language learning. Our ultimate aim, is to establish the extent to which such programmes can encourage and promote multilingualism in twenty-first century Britain.

To that end, we have held a series of public screenings of these crime dramas at the University of Hull. These screenings have involved us coming together to watch just one episode from a series with our audience, and then conducting a Q&A session – with a difference! This time, we have been asking the audience the questions about what struck them about these programmes. The six programmes we have featured have been:

  • Spiral, the French television police procedural and legal drama series set in Paris.
  • Inspector Montalbano, the Italian series that tells the story of the inspector’s detective work in and around the fictional Sicilian town of Vigata.
  • Falke, the gritty German crime drama that follows Inspector Thorsten Falke, a stubborn Hamburg detective, and takes us into the heart of contemporary German society.
  • Mafiosa, the French series set on Corsica, which charts the trials of a female mafia boss.
  • Maltese: The Mafia Detective, the Italian miniseries set in 1970s’ Sicily, which tells the story of Maltese’s return to the island to conduct a murder investigation that reveals a complex web of widespread corruption and the omnipresence of the Mafia in the area.
  • Dark, the German family saga with a supernatural twist, which sees children disappearing from a town in a way that follows a historical pattern.

The questions we have then asked our participants are as follows:

1) Have you seen an episode of this show before?

2) What were your first or second impressions? What struck you most?

3) What do you think the programme revealed about France/Italy/Germany and French/Italian/German culture? Did that match your expectations?

4) Could this episode have been set anywhere? What is culturally specific to what you have just watched?

5) Can you pick out three French/Italian/German words that are new to you (perhaps repeated throughout the programme)? Did you understand their meaning? How? Did you have any previous knowledge of the language to help you?

6) How important do you think it is to have the sound on to appreciate what is being said? Would you prefer to watch a dubbed version of the show? Why or why not?

7) Does watching the programme make you want to visit the country/location? And learn the language? Why/why not?

8) Would you watch the next episode?

In this post, we want to share some of our initial findings with you, drawn from the post-screening conversations we had from our six sessions.

In terms of what whether these series could be set anywhere, and what then was culturally specific about the programmes we were watching, the responses varied according to the shows. For Spiral and Falke, for example, our audiences suggested that apart from a few establishing shots in the former, these programmes could have been set anywhere (for Spiral, the location could have been any big city, perhaps New York or London; for Falke, our East Yorkshire audience was struck by how similar the landscape in the countryside outside of Hamburg is to areas of East Yorkshire and particularly to places around the city of Hull). What was culturally specific, then, were things to do with content. For Spiral, the audience focused on the presence of corruption in French society (and said this confirmed a perception they had of France) and also the specificity of the French judicial and police systems. But the plot was then international in nature, and the concepts that the plot then dealt were described as neutral (ie, not culturally specific to France). The only culturally specific element in Falke, our audience said, was tied to the language. The plot again was deemed to be international, containing tropes that are common to the genre of international crime dramas.

In contrast, Inspector Montalbano, Mafiosa, and Maltese were all seen to be intrinsically linked to their locations but where that location was, was perhaps more debatable. There was an obvious aspect of Mediterranean-ness to all these series, with our audiences suggesting that the programmes didn’t feel particularly French or Italian but rather part of a Mediterranean culture that meant that the shows could have been situated in Greece or Turkey, for example. The focus on the family, the depiction of the Mafia, and the presence of corruption were again identified as culturally-specific to these areas, and particularly an aspect of Italian culture (stereotypically, according to some of our viewers).

In terms of language, we have had some really interesting discussions with our audiences regarding subtitling and the importance of the sound of the language. For nearly all members of our audience, it would have been impossible to watch any of these shows with the sound off. Not only is the background music important to understanding what is happening and building up the tension and suspense, the sound of the language itself is crucial to understanding some of the cultural specificity of these shows and grasping the elements that are specific to locations and nations. One participant explained that you don’t need to understand the words to get the meaning of a conversation: tone of voice can be enough to understand the emotion of the characters, all of which then contribute to the atmosphere of the programme. Many of our viewers also said they would not watch a dubbed version of these programmes, because dubbing, they said, added distance and another cultural interpretation that wouldn’t be there in the original. Where members of the audience would have been happy to watch a dubbed version of these shows, we discovered that they were already used to watching dubbed programming due to their background (these viewers tended to come from countries other than the UK, where dubbing, they explained, was much more the norm). One viewer who grew up outside the UK insisted that use of dubbing broadened the audience since ‘[the viewers] don’t care where it is set, they just want to know whodunnit!’ It was then the UK viewers, often new to foreign-language drama / who did not grow up with foreign-language drama, who would prefer to not watch a dubbed version and to also keep the sound on to hear the language, if only for its aesthetic quality to help set the scene and tone of the show.

From our perspective, what was then interesting was the nature of the conversations we had regarding whether the programmes made you want to learn the language. For Spiral, for example, one audience member explained that he regretted that his French was so poor that he had needed the subtitles to understand what was being said. Whilst he could grasp the gist of a conversation from the tone of voice and context, he needed the subtitles to understand the precise meaning of the words, which he felt was important for his enjoyment of the show. He was interested in watching more episodes of Spiral, but also in developing his knowledge of French (which was GCSE level), to be able to understand what was going on without needing the subtitles all the time. For the Italian series, our viewers did not feel encouraged to learn the language due to the speed of the conversations! However, they were very interested in visiting places where the series were set (Sicily) – suggesting that the promotional, touristic aspect of Montalbano in particular also works in the UK context.

The Walter Presents Vision, Internationalism & Identity, 18 April 2018

Walter Presents (@WalterPresents) is the lovechild of the Global Series Network production company and Channel 4. Walter Presents is contributing to changing the British relationship with foreign language television. It provides entire box-sets of quality, often prize-winning TV drama, free to watch and available on All 4, Channel 4’s digital hub. All of this, without a word of English in sight. In April 2018, I met with the curator of Walter Presents, Walter Iuzzolino, to ask him about the vision behind the platform.

 

Overcoming elitism

For Walter, the whole idea is about overcoming the problem in the UK according to which international TV is high-brow, elitist, art house. There is a sense that some feel entitled to watch international drama and others do not. Walter wanted to open up international drama to new audiences and it remains an aim to broaden the Walter Presents audience.

 

‘Foreign’ versus ‘international’

Walter objects to the term ‘foreign’, as in ‘foreign drama’, as he believes it has negative connotations and indeed begs the question ‘foreign to what?’ He prefers the term ‘international drama’, which also suggests that Walter Presents is offering the very best of drama from around the world.

 

The importance of subtitling

Walter underlined the importance of subtitling and the fact that dubbing ‘assassinates the quality’ of the programme. Indeed, he insisted on the importance of hearing the foreign language, of the language subliminally filtering into the viewer’s consciousness.

 

‘Travelling the world in your living room’

Walter emphasised the idea of ‘travelling the world in your living room’, of giving a glimpse into the everyday lives of others, into the lifestyle of others: their cars, kitchens, ways of dressing, etc.

 

Beyond crime drama

Walter confirmed that crime drama is the most watched category of programme at Walter Presents and indeed he sees this as the first step in the process of encouraging viewers to try international drama. Crime drama crosses boundaries more easily than other genres as a result of the familiarity of its architecture and its capacity to ‘hook’ the reader. Crime is a language which, in Walter’s words ‘helps viewers broaden their taste’.

 

Becoming someone new, accessing another life

Walter talked about the freedom that international drama affords viewers, the opportunity, for example, ‘to embrace your Frenchness’ and to discover something which allows you ‘to express another part of yourself’. As Walter said, ‘every time you learn another language, you access another life’.

 

Brexit

Walter sees Brexit as ‘a cry for help’ and is adamant that it is an opportunity. He reminded us that the arts and culture tend to do well in such a political climate as people tend to ‘seek oxygen’ and thus something more outward-looking.

 

With my thanks to Walter Iuzzolino. We will be exploring some of these issues during our public screenings and follow-up discussions at the University of Hull, September – November 2018.

Dr Helena Chadderton, University of Hull

Watching the Transnational Detectives

Watching the Transnational Detectives: Showcasing Identity, Internationalism and Language Learning on British Television

A recent article in the Evening Standard posed the question ‘Is it a coincidence that just as governments are seeking to close their borders, television is opening them?’ (March 15 2017). Indeed, in post-Brexit Britain, television viewers have access to an ever increasing number of foreign language programmes. And ‘with the boom in streaming services, a single TV drama can cross borders like never before. Yet still, telling local stories appears to be the secret to international appeal’ (ibid).  But what is the relationship between the local, national, and transnational that is presented on screen? And how do these dramas influence viewers’ perceptions of the countries, nationalities and languages which are depicted on screen?

Our ‘watching the transnational detectives’ research project addresses these questions by focusing on popular crime dramas from France, Italy, and Germany as case studies. The programmes we are focusing on are: The Tunnel; Spiral; Braquo; Inspector Montalbano; Young Montalbano; Inspector De Luca; Maltese: the Mafia DetectiveDarkFalke; Babylon Berlin; Nick’s Law.  We are exploring the way in which ideas of national identity and nationhood are interrogated through these programmes when they are watched outside of their original national context. We are a team of four researchers in Modern Languages and Cultures from the University of Hull (Dr Helena Chadderton; Dr Rachel Haworth; Dr Angela Kimyongür; Dr Laura Rorato)  and we are conducting our own research on these programmes. We’re looking forward to welcoming a PhD student to the project here in Hull in September.

However, in order to assess the impact of these programmes outside of the national context, we are also interested in the viewing public’s thoughts on these series. We are inviting members of the public to free screenings of certain episodes from some of the above programmes. We’re then asking our audience to identify what they perceive to be the ideas of nationhood and national identity that the programmes offer, and to reflect on the extent to which these programmes challenge or re-affirm their preconceived ideas about foreign languages (eg how difficult they are; how different to English they are; how necessary they are in a globalizing Europe of the twenty-first century; whether viewers feel motivated to learn the language of the programme they are watching).

Our screenings are taking place September, October and November 2018 and more information will be available shortly. We’re then organising a project conference in London in November 2018; again, more information to come!

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